Pride Nonverbal Coding Scheme
This coding scheme is based on findings reported in Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (in press). The prototypical pride expression: Development of a nonverbal coding scheme. Emotion [PDF]; and Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2004). Show your pride: Evidence for a discrete emotion expression. Psychological Science, 15, 194-197. [PDF]
The scheme was validated in Tracy, J. L., & Matsumoto, D. (in press). The Spontaneous Display of Pride and Shame: Evidence for Biologically Innate Nonverbal Displays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. [PDF]
*Note: this coding scheme also includes behaviors relevant to shame, based on Izard, C.E. (1971). The face of emotion. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Croft; Keltner, D. (1995). Signs of appeasement: Evidence for the distinct displays of embarrassment, amusement, and shame. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 441-454; and Lewis, M., Alessandri, S.M., & Sullivan, M.W. (1992). Differences in shame and pride as a function of children’s gender and task difficulty. Child Development, 63, 630-638.
Instructions for coders:
For each of the following, please rate the intensity of the particular behavior or movement using the scale below. If the behavior or movement is not present, score it as 0.
- Head tilted back/up ___
- Head tilted forward/down ___
- Smile ___
- Moving hands to cover face or part of face___
- Hiding face by moving face or head (in hands, onto ground, into upper arm, turning away, etc.)___
- One or both arms out from body ___
- One or both arms raised ___
- One or both hands in fists ___
- Hands on hips ___
- Arms crossed on chest___
- One or both arms limp at sides___
- Chest expanded ___
- Torso pushed out/leaning back ___
- Chest narrowed inward ___
- Shoulders slumped forward___
Pride components = Head 1, Head 3, Arms 1, Arms 2, Arms 3, Arms 4, Arms 5, Body 1, and Body 2. Not all components must be present to code pride. Necessary components for greater than chance recognition are: Head 3 + [Head 1 or (Arms 1 + Arms 2 + Arms 3) or (Arms 4) or (Arms 5)]; or Head 3 + Arms 6 + Head 1 + (Body 1 or Body 2). Necessary components for reliable recognition at more stringent levels (greater than 70%) are: Head 3 + Arms 1 + Arms 2 + Arms 3 + Head 1; or Head 3 + Arms 1 + Arms 2 + Arms 3 + (Body 1 or Body 2); or Head 3 + Arms 4 + Head 1; or Head 3 + Head 1 + (Body 1 or Body 2).
Shame components: Head 2, Head 4, Head 5, Arms 6, Body 3, and Body 4. Not all components must be present to code shame. Accurate recognition can occur from Head 2 + (Head 4 or Head 5).